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- 2) Campaign Duration
- Building A Brand Using Traditional Vs. New Media
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The durability of initial brand impressions can be a blessing or a curse. It is no secret that well-known and well-regarded brands can extend their equity into new products. From an electronic media perspective, a network, program, or even a feature of a program can be positioned according to a number of audience-centered dimensions.
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- McDowell / Batten | Branding TV | 2nd edition | | Principles and Practices.
- Trust, Reputation, and Security: Theories and Practice: AAMAS 2002 International Workshop, Bologna, Italy, July 15, 2002. Selected and Invited Papers;
- Branding TV | Principles and Practices | Taylor & Francis Group!
- Introduction: Transmedia Practices: A Television Branding Revolution.
From this analysis a media brand manager can determine areas in which the brand is perceived as strong, positive, and unique. They form a kind of shorthand that makes choice easier. They let one escape from a feature-by-feature analysis of category alternatives, and so, in a world where time is an ever-diminishing commodity, brands make it easier to store evaluations.
A category refers to the generic commodity with no differentiation among brands. Depending on a number of motivational factors, a 4 Why People Like Brands 18 consumer may choose a category of product to satisfy a need with no consideration of brands—any brand will do. In another purchase situation, the same consumer may carefully evaluate the merits of a number of alternative brands— which is the best brand for me?
A third option is the consumer seeks a specific brand with no consideration of category alternatives—only this brand will do. In a cluttered marketplace, in which consumer products are often more similar than they are different, proper brand management increases the probability of consumer brand choice.
Brand management is the reason why consumers want a Big Mac not just a hamburger, a pair of Nikes not just a pair of sneakers, a Harley rather than just a motorcycle. In media terms, we can say that media brand management is the reason why audiences tune to Law and Order rather than just any television drama, Sex and the City rather than just any television sitcom, Eyewitness News rather than just any local television newscast.
An important assumption for any practical measure of brand strength is that the brand under study should be a direct competitor coming from the same product category. In other words, mouthwashes should not be compared to deodorants, nor should television sitcoms be compared to newscasts. Researchers have found that in repetitive decision-making situations, habits save time and reduce the mental effort of decision making.
For example, if the repeated outcomes resulting from the use of a branded product are positive, the likelihood of that consumer buying that brand again is increased. Human beings are creatures of habit because habits simplify our lives by reducing anxiety about taking chances. If you are the brand manager of the incumbent leading brand, habitual behavior is a good thing because habits are really hard to break.
For a brand challenger, however, consumer habits are the enemy. Instead of examining and conscientiously evaluating each brand, habitual buyers simply bypass all this effort and retrieve from memory a preferred brand and hand over the money! Media brands experience the same dilemma.
Once established, daily or even weekly viewing habits are extremely hard to break. For example, the biggest problem that broadcasters face during fall premiere weeks is persuading audiences to break old habits and sample new programming.
2) Campaign Duration
Viewers who cannot discern any compelling reason to change channels will tend to remain tuned to the channel that is already in use. A typical example is the late evening newscast block in which three or four stations go head to head with highly similar program content. More often than not, the most influential 4. This implies that many viewers see all newscasts as equally satisfying and therefore not worth changing stations.
In the best of marketing circumstances, people like brands because they save time, energy, and risk when purchasing a product or service. Once a preferred brand has been set up in memory, the purchase decision becomes automatic or habitual. In fact, a consumer will go out of his or her way to seek out this best of all brands. In the worst of circumstances, all competing brands are considered satisfactory and the purchase decision is based more on chance than choice.
Although the most visible forms of marketing and promotion are aimed at the general public to attract audiences, the business community, represented by advertisers and media buyers, is equally important. In fact, it is this second group that ultimately buys the brand and generates revenue.
Although audience-based branding strategies are aimed primarily at the general public, often segmented into narrower demographic or lifestyle groupings, advertiserbased branding strategies concentrate on a much smaller audience of business decision makers possessing special knowledge. From a conceptual standpoint, these dual efforts often share little in common, requiring managers and employees to reconcile these differences into an integrated branding mindset. An important question is to what extent should the two branding strategies overlap and to what extent should they diverge and become independent projects?
In other words, that which persuades audiences to watch or listen may not persuade advertisers to buy. One can assume that media buyers are aware of audience-branding strategies simply because they are exposed to the same advertising and promotional tactics as the general public. Furthermore, these audience-attracting efforts help advertisers better understand the types of potential customers that might be watching.
However, this audience-brand knowledge is not sufficient to build and maintain advertiser-based brand equity. The media-advertiser business relationship might include components that have little or no connection with audiences. For example, a station sales department may want to build an exceptional reputation for client service, emphasizing trust, promptness, and reliability, things that go beyond ratings and cost-per-thousands.
When selling a program package to a potential advertiser, there should be a sense of a coherent brand identity that may encompass the network, the station, and the individual programs. This challenge implies more than just organizing properly the tangible assets of a company. It also means dealing with human assets and the intangibles of branding.
Note how the terms vision, core values, identity, and meaning all depict knowledge of a brand that transcends ordinary functional attributes of the product or service. For a television station promoting its Eyewitness News brand, there should be a well-conceived integrated branding strategy that includes both audience-based and advertiser-based elements.
Regrettably, for many stations audience and advertiser marketing efforts have been delegated to different departments, typically the promotion and sales departments. A few stations have seen the light of a unified media brand management strategy and have combined responsibilities under the supervision of a single department head. For the remainder of Section I of this book, most of the discussion can be applied to both audience and sales branding efforts. They often use the following branding terms interchangeably.
Here is a brief clarification of some common terms. By depicting a program as a product and an audience member or advertiser as a consumer, most branding concepts can be adapted readily to broadcasting. In broadcasting a brand name would be the name of a network, station, or program.
For example, Eyewitness News is a branded local newscast. However, true branding is more than attaching a name to a product or service. The intent of branding is to make the brand name something unique, memorable, and valuable in the minds of consumers.
Building A Brand Using Traditional Vs. New Media
The marketing premise for this action is that the established brand has valuable branding assets that can be transferred to the new product. Positive thoughts and feelings that consumers have about the original product will hopefully carry over to the new product. An example would be Ford creating a new type of automobile or truck but still identifying it as a Ford product. On the local level, extending the Eyewitness News brand name to all newscasts airing on a station would be considered a brand extension. The one note of caution when dealing with brand extensions is that the two products must have something in common.
There are many case studies in which a poorly conceived brand extension has actually hurt the stature of the original brand.
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In this era of ownership duopolies and triopolies! It refers to the simple familiarity recall or recognition of a brand relative to its product category. In electronic media terms, this could be the simple recall or recognition of a network, station, or program name or logo.
When all brands under consideration are thought to be equally satisfying, top-of-mind awareness becomes extremely important in brand marketing. This narrower view of awareness looks only at the brands that are recalled first by a consumer or audience member. Experimental studies have confirmed that simple top-of-mind brand awareness can be the deciding factor in choosing a brand. This heightened awareness of certain brands is often the result of heavy exposure to advertising. Some product purchases are more involving than are others. For instance, buying an expensive new car is far more involving than is buying a cheap tube of toothpaste.
Branding is extremely important in low involvement 6. Most television viewing is considered a low involvement activity, in which the media consumer seldom agonizes over what network or program to watch. Consequently, our prior concept of top-of-mind awareness becomes a critical branding consideration. These different meanings are often referred to by brand researchers as brand associations. Some researchers compare brand associations in terms of their relative favorability, strength, and uniqueness.
From an electronic media perspective, audiences can be asked what thoughts and feelings come to mind when a particular network, station, program or on-air talent is mentioned. Once analyzed properly, this qualitative information can be distilled into specific brand dimensions that can used in positioning the relationship of our target brand to its direct competitors. In other words, although brand image asks what you know and feel about the brand, brand attitude asks what is your appraisal of the brand.
How strong are your intentions to buy the brand? Some brand researchers merge brand image with brand attitude and use either term. Television audiences can evaluate a program and develop a predisposition to watch or not. Later, we will see how stubborn consumer brand attitudes can be. Rarely can a television program reinvent itself after bombing during its first few episodes.